Highlights A strain (BEYO 2) of Tetranychus urticae was selected with fenpyroximate for 14 selections. Therefore, Fipronil-induced rat thyroid tumors are not considered suggestive of a human health risk. Beside this, it also has some moulting inhibitory activity on nymphs and also serves as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport at complex I. (increased thyroid tumors in male and female rats). This mode of action is similar to the cyclodienes, however, the exact binding site for fipronil in the GABA gated chloride channel may be distinct from that of the cyclodienes and picrotoxinin (Gant et al. Mechanism of toxicity of pesticides acting at ... Tetranychidae) and its implications in mode of action considerations. Phenoxypyrazole: Fenpyroximate is an acaricide also causes rapid knockdown effect against larvae, nymphs and adults, mainly by contact and ingestion. Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. Humans and rats have the same of the mechanism of action which produced Fipronil-induced thyroid tumors in the rat; however, the rat appears to be more highly sensitive than humans. The non-target effects of acaricides, used against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) the coconut mite, on its natural enemies are not known. T. urticae develops resistances to many being used on many crops worldwide to control T. urticae (Van different classes of acaricides when they are heavily used, resulting Leeuwen et al., 2009). demonstrated that fenpyroximate, a strong inhibitor of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), binds to the ND5 subunit [Nakamaru-Ogiso, E., et al. Using a photoaffinity labeling technique, Nakamaru-Ogiso et al. Thomas Van Leeuwen, Luc Tirry, Atsushi Yamamoto, Ralf Nauen, Wannes Dermauw, The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.12.009, 121, (12-21), (2015). Fenpyroximate, a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor of complex I (METI-I), is a commonly used acaricide to control this pest. This informs the symptomology, speed of action and other properties of the actives therein and not for any resistance management purpose. in a huge demand for acaricides with novel modes of action (Suh The present study examines selection for fenpyroximate resis- et al., 2006). Base rotations for resistance management on the mode of action number only. In this study, we determined fenpyroximate resistance levels for 11 P. ulmi populations from Iran and a spirodiclofen-resistant strain from Germany (PSR-TK). (2003) Biochemistry 42, 746–754]. 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